In Bengal Presidency during British Rule support to police was extended by Village Chaukidari Act 1856 to collect tax from the peasants and provide funds to keep chaukidari in the villages.

Local magistrates were authorized to appoint a panchayat of three to five persons to apportion the taxes for the purpose of chaukidaries or police. This act was further amended in 1870. These type of panchayats were mainly chaukidari panchayats .

Chowkidars were particularly hated because they acted as spies for the Government and often also as retainers for the local landlords.

During the civil disobedience movement, there was a no chowkidari tax Campaign in Eastern India and the chowkidars were forced to resign.

The movement against this tax and calling for the resignation of Chowkidars first started in Bihar in May itself, as salt agitation had not much scope due to the land-locked nature of the province.

The Government retaliated by confiscation of property worth hundreds and thousands in lieu of a few rupees of tax, and by beatings and torture.

The occupation triggered off daily demonstrations outside the ashram, and a visit by Rajendra Prasad and Abdul Ban from Patna became the occasion for, a huge mass rally, which was broken up by a lathi charge in which Rajendra Prasad was injured.

The movement marked an important state in the progress of the civil disobedience movement all over India.