The Great Musi Flood was a devastating flood that occurred on 28 September 1908 in Hyderabad on the banks of Musi river. The city of Hyderabad was the capital of the Hyderabad State, ruled by the Nizam, Mir Mahbub Ali Khan. It also known as the Flood that changed face of Hyderabad.⁣

The flood, locally known as Thughyani Sitambar, shattered the life of the people living in city, killing 50,000 people. It washed away three bridges. One was them was only link between two parts of city.⁣

The Musi river was the cause of frequent flood devastation of Hyderabad city till early 20th century. It had begun to swell dangerously on 27 September, 1908. In 36 hours, 17 inches of rainfall was recorded, and the water level at Afzalgunj was about 11 feet (3.4 m) high and in other places even higher.⁣

The flood razed over 80,000 houses, making a fourth of the population homeless. It completely destroyed the Nizam Hospital, burying the patients. ⁣

A 200-year-old tamarind tree inside one Hospital saved over 150 people who climbed it.⁣

A relief fund of 500,000 Rupees was borne by the state, and 1,000,000 more raised by public subscription, with the Nizam and Kishen Pershad making the largest donations. The government declared an official holiday of ten days for people to deal with their own crises.⁣

The Nizam invited M. Visvesvaraya to advise and assist in the reconstruction of the city and to devise measures for the prevention of the recurrence of such a terrible catastrophe. He proposed to construct reservoirs a few miles north of the capital.⁣

A dam was built under noted engineer Nawab Ali Nawaz Jung Bahadur in 1920 across the river, ten miles (16 km) upstream from the city, called Osman Sagar. In 1927, another reservoir was built on Esi (tributary of Musi) and named Himayat Sagar. ⁣

These lakes prevent the flooding of the River Musi and are major drinking water sources for Hyderabad city.⁣

According to historian Benjamin Cohen, the flood and deaths were used by the Nizam and his advisers to remake the city in a way that made it flood-proof. It also changed the power equations of the city.⁣