In the beginning of the 20th century, a new class of national leaders emerged in India which was different from the moderate group. They took a more aggressive stance against the British Empire. They were typically younger and did not believe in the soft and persuasive approach of moderate leaders.⁣

They were called extremist because they believed that success could be achieved only through bold means.⁣

There was considerable unemployment in the country and these unemployed youths started getting attracted towards the anti-Government radical politics.⁣

These youths were aware of the Russophobia of British. They could understand what was happening in Japan. They knew about the Chinese boycott of American goods. They knew about the struggle of British in the Boer war.⁣

This group of people hated the British due to their apathy, discrimination and irresponsible administration during the famine and plague. And top of that, it was partition of Bengal.

These youngsters did not like the congress mendicancy. They had the Atma Shakti and wanted to fight for their rights.⁣

Around 1 million people were reading newspapers now. The Bengal, the Punjab and the Presidency of Bombay were ripe for rise of the militant nationalism.⁣

These news that came from across the border was enough to boost their self confidence and slowly the inferiority complex of Indians was getting washed away.⁣

The first activity of militant nationalism was seen in Pune during the Bubonic plague of Bombay presidency when the Chapekar brothers shot two officials Mr. Rand and Lt. Ayerst dead in 1897.