Mahatma Gandhi was horrified by jallianwala bagh massacre. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and declared that it would be a “sin” to co-operate with the “satanic” government.⁣

In March 1920, he issued a manifesto declaring a doctrine of the non-violent non-cooperation movement.⁣

Gandhi, through this manifesto, wanted people to:⁣

•Adopt swadeshi principles⁣
•Adopt swadeshi habits including hand spinning & weaving⁣
•Work for the eradication of untouchability from society⁣

Indian Muslims who had participated in the Khilafat movement to restore the status of the Caliph gave their support to the non-cooperation movement. In response to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and other violence in Punjab, the movement sought to secure Swaraj, independence for India. ⁣

Gandhi promised Swaraj in one year if his Non-Cooperation programme was fully implemented. ⁣

Gandhi called for a nationwide protest against the Rowlatt Act. All offices and factories would be closed. Indians would be encouraged to withdraw from Raj-sponsored schools, police services, the military, and the civil service, and lawyers were asked to leave the Raj’s courts. ⁣

Indians returned honours and titles given by the government and resigned from various posts like teachers, lawyers, civil and military services.⁣

The impact of the revolt was a total shock to British authorities and a massive encouragement to millions of Indian nationalists. ⁣

As a result of this movement, people became conscious of their political rights. They were not afraid of the government.⁣

Movement was withdrawn because of the Chauri Chaura incident. Although he had stopped the national revolt single-handedly, on 10 March 1922, Gandhi was arrested. On 18 March 1922, he was imprisoned for six years for publishing seditious materials. ⁣

It was one of Gandhi’s first organized acts of large-scale civil disobedience.⁣

The movement marked the transition of Indian nationalism from a middle-class to a mass basis.⁣

It was during this movement Subhas Chandra Bose resigned from civil service. He was appointed as the principal of the National College in Calcutta.⁣