The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the colonial government in British India to gradually introduce self-governing institutions in India. ⁣

The reforms take their name from Edwin Montagu, the Secretary of State for India and Chelmsford, Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921.⁣

Edwin Montagu, along Lord Chelmsford, brought out a detailed report titled Constitutional Reforms in India.This report was published on 8th July 1918.⁣

The important features of this act were as follows:⁣

1. The Imperial Legislative Council was now to consist of two houses- the Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of State.⁣

2. The provinces were to follow the Dual Government System or Dyarchy.⁣

In a system called “dyarchy,” the nation-building departments of government were placed under ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature. The departments that made up the “steel frame” of British rule were retained by executive councilors who were nominated by the Governor. They were often, but not always, British and who were responsible to the governor. ⁣

It was stated in the Montagu-Chelmsford report that a survey must be made after 10 years. To this effect, Sir John Simon (Simon Commission) was in charge of the survey that recommended further changes. There were three roundtable conferences held in 1931, 1932 and 1933 in London. But no headway was made in any of them.⁣

The major disagreement between the Indian National Congress and the British was separate electorates for each community which Congress opposed, but they were retained in Ramsay MacDonald’s Communal Award. A new Government of India Act 1935 was passed continuing the move towards self-government first made in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report.⁣