The Indian Councils Act 1909 commonly known as the Morley-Minto or Minto-Morley Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ⁣

This was the time of unrest in India. Both the Viceroy and the Secretary of State for India decided to work out some scheme to reform the Legislative councils. This culminated as Indian Councils act 1909 or Minto-Morley reforms. ⁣

It introduced separate and discriminatory electorate. This was for the first time that, electorate for returning to the representatives to the councils was decided on the basis of class & community. Therefore Lord Minto came to be known as Father of Communal Electorate in India⁣

This was for the first time that Muslim community was recognized as a completely separate section of the Indian nation and this triggered “A Cancer” in India called “Hindu-Muslim Disharmony” which later culminated in India and Pakistan. ⁣

Morley (then Secretary of State) wished to gather moderate Indians because of the armed activities by the young nationalists, and through this(act) wanted to keep the moderates away from the radical members of the Congress.⁣

So he increased the number of members of the legislative councils at the center was increased from 16-60.⁣

The elected Indians were also enabled to debate budgetary and complementary matters and table resolutions.⁣

The members given right to discuss matters of the public interest but please note that the House was not binding on the government. ⁣

The number of the members of the provincial legislatures was also increased and it was fixed 50 for Bengal, madras and Bombay and 30 for rest of the provinces.⁣

For the provincial councils a provision of three categories was made viz. general, special and chambers of commerce. For the central council, one more category Muslims was added. It was for the first time that, the seats in the legislative bodies were reserved on the basis of religion for Muslims. This is called Communal representation.⁣

In the Lahore Session of Indian National Congress, 1909, strong disapproval was expressed against the separate electorate formed on the basis of religion.⁣