After creation of Muslim League, in 1913, a new group of Muslim leaders entered the fold of the Muslim League with a much different view than their predecessors.⁣

Caliph was regarded as the religious head of Muslims all over world. The indifferent policy of England towards the Caliph of Turkey made the Muslims dislike the British.⁣

The British had announced that they will be considering a series of proposals that would lead to at least half of the members of the Executive Council being elected and the Legislative Council having a majority of elected members needed. This announcement was done under immense pressure from Indians in order to satisfy the Indians.⁣

Both the Congress and the Muslim League were in suppor as both had realized that for further concessions to be gained, greater cooperation was required.⁣

Therefore they reached to an agreement at a joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916, which came to be known as Lucknow Pact.⁣

Through this pact, the two parties agreed to allow representation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures. ⁣

The Muslim League leaders agreed to join the Congress movement demanding Indian autonomy. The Congress agreed to separate electorates for Muslims in electing representatives to the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils. ⁣

The Congress also agreed to the idea of one-third seats for the Muslims in the Councils despite the fact that the Muslim population represented less than a third. ⁣

The Lucknow Pact was seen as a beacon of hope to Hindu–Muslim unity. It led to a growing belief in British India that Home Rule (self-government) was a real possibility.⁣

This session brought the ‘extremist’ faction led by the Lal Bal Pal trio, and the ‘moderate’ faction led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale until his death in 1915 and later represented by Gandhi in Congress on common platform again after nearly a decade, particularly due to efforts of Annie Besant. ⁣

The Congress President in his address said that “if the congress was buried at Surat, it is reborn in Lucknow in the garden of Wajid Ali Shah“. ⁣