In 1902-03, a Police Commission was established for the Police reforms under Andrew Frazer and Lord Curzon got much success in the Police intelligence.⁣

It was the rule of Lord Curzon , in which the basic structure of Indian domestic intelligence got developed and remained so till 1947, when India Became independent.⁣

He attached Department of Criminal Intelligence to the Government of India at the Center. The result was that this DCI became the central domestic and foreign intelligence agency. At the province level, the Criminal Investigation Departments (CIDs) were established in all provinces of British India.⁣

In 1903, the “Thugee and Dakaiti Department” was abolished by the Police Commission, because it was now thought that Thugee no longer exists even in the princely states.⁣

It is claimed that the CIDs were introduced by Lord Curzon, because he could foresee the growing nationalism in India.⁣

But it is not correct to say so. Lord Curzon saw Congress as an easy target and not a serious threat. It was only after 1905, when Congress became a mammoth organization. The Congress was not even mentioned in his deliberations of the Police Commission in 1902-03. At that time, it was thought that Congress is not involved in fomenting the violent opposition of the Government. The early nationalists were loyal to the Government.⁣

⁣‘The police force is far from efficient, it is defective in training and organization, it is inadequately supervised, it is generally regarded as  corrupt and oppressive, and it has utterly failed to secure the confidence and cordial cooperation of the people’⁣
⁣ – A.H.L.Fraser, Chairman of the Second Police Commission(1902)⁣