Mohenjo-Daro was a most important Harappan city. The meaning of Mohenjo-Daro is “Mound of the dead” and Mohenjo-Daro is the best known Indus site. It was initially sighted by D R Handarkar in 1911-1912, who mistook its baked mud bricks as being only 200 years old. In 1922, R D Banerji (Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay), one of the Superintendent Archaeologists of the Archaeological Survey of India, decided to excavate the Buddhist stupa that dominated the site two years after major excavations had begun at Harappa. Subsequent excavations revealed that the mounds contain the remains of what was once the largest city of the Indus civilization. Large-scale excavations were carried out at the site under the direction of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and numerous other directors through the 1930s. Mohenjo-daro represents an entire Early Bronze Age civilization on a par with those of contemporary Egypt and Mesopotamia. The Mohenjo-Daro has two mounds. The western mound is lower which was a citadel with 200 m X 400 m and eastern is a bigger which was having the relics of a buried city of size 400×800 meters. At Mohenjo-Daro the most unicorn seals have been found. All houses have a courtyard , kitchen and a well. They also have proper arrangements of light air and drainage. Mohenjo-Daro has also shown an extensive usage of bricks. The Evidences found at Mohenjo-Daro: Granary, Assembly Hall, Hidden drains, Uniform buildings, A piece of woven cotton along with spindle whorls and needles, A bronze figurine of a dancing girl, Violence leading to death. A seal representing the Mother Goddess a plant growing from her womb, A figurine of a bearded man, A seal with a picture suggesting Pashupati Mahadev, A seal which shows a woman to be sacrificed by a man with a knife. The last major excavation project at the site was carried out by the late Dr. G. F. Dales in 1964-65, after which excavations were banned due to the problems of conserving the exposed structures from weathering. Mohenjo-daro was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980.
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