The Calcutta High Court is one of the three High Courts in India established at the Presidency Towns by Letters patent granted by Queen Victoria, bearing date 26 June 1862, and is the oldest High Court in India. It was established as the High Court of Judicature at Fort William on 1 July 1862 under the High Courts Act, 1861, which was preceded by the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William.

After 10 years of establishment of High Court, the High Court Building is constructed. It is designed by Walter Granville, the architect appointed by the British Government. To reduce the crowd an annex building is developed in 1977 and it is known as High Court Centenary Building. In the 2006 year, there is a debate in the issue of Calcutta Vs. Kolkata, the cabinet take the decision regarding name change of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras High Court to change their names. But most of the attorneys and Judges are stick on the name Calcutta. Because they said that, this is the first High Court in India and has an emotional attachment to it. The president Incorporated Law Society of Calcutta (ILSC) made a statement that “. The Bengali people called it Kolkata; it is Calcutta more than 150 years.