Annexation of Satara:
The Raja of Satara died in 1848 without leaving any natural heir. However, he had adopted a son before his death. But this adoption was declared invalid on the pretext that he had not taken the sanction for the same.
The Court of Directors declared that a dependent principality like that of Satara could not pass on to an adopted son without the consent of the paramount power. Satara was thus annexed to the British Empire. This annexation was unjust because British had entered into a treaty on the basis of equality.
Background History :
Shahji ruled the Indian city of Satara and the surrounding Satara district from 1839 until 1848. He was also known as Appa Saheb, and his full titles were Shreemant Maharaj Shaji Raja Chhatrapati of Satara.
His adoptive father Pratap Singh had been dethroned as Raja Pratap Singh, Raja of Satara by the British rulers in 1839 and stripped of his powers and personal possessions. Appa Sahib succeeded his father under the title Shreemant Maharaj Shajee Raja Chhatrapati of Satara.
After his death, the British questioned the irregularity of his adoption, refused to recognise the succession, and annexed the state of Satara to the Presidency of Bombay under the doctrine of lapse, on 1 May 1849.